When dealing with any type of knee problem we need to understand the relationship that the knee has with the other joints in the body, particularly the hip and the foot. It can be said that the knee is caught between the foot and the hip, and as such the foot, knee, and hip make up what is known as a kinetic chain. In fact, many of the muscles that act at the knee also cross either the hip or ankle joint. As a result of this relationship, with any knee problem both the foot and hip must always be closely examined as an abnormality in either area will greatly influence problems at the knee.
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The hip consists of a “ball-and-socket” joint that is formed between the Femoral Head and the Acetabulum, a part of the Pelvic Bone. As a result of its shape the hip joint is capable of a wide range of motion in all directions – forward and backwards, side-to-side, and rotation inwards and outwards. In addition to this large range of motion it is important to understand that because the hip joint joins the leg to the trunk there is a tremendous amount of force that must pass through this region with daily activities. Due to the high amount of force, combined with the large range of motion, the hip must rely on a complex system of muscles to control and protect the area.
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When talking about injuries there are 2 main types – acute and repetitive. Acute injuries occur following a single event, such as a fall or hard collision. Repetitive injuries, like the name implies, occur slowly over time as a result of performing the same motion over and over again.
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Shoulder pain is usually mechanical. That means that the structure is fine, no fractures or tears. Instead, the way the shoulder is moving may be a contributing factor to the painful symptoms. The shoulder is a freely movable joint in which its health depends heavily on the muscles that control and support it to be in balance. The shoulder also requires stability from the scapula (shoulder blades).
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Bursitis is caused by inflammation of one or more of the bursa(s) which typically surround and protect certain joints. A bursa is a small fluid-filled sack. The job of a bursa is to cushion and protect by preventing friction between bone and the overlying tendons and muscles.
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Although the wrist and hand is a small area, it consists of a complex system of muscles, nerves, tendons, and joints which work together to enable us to perform what are known as fine motor skills such as typing or buttoning a shirt. Nerve irritation can be a common cause of symptoms that affect those fine motor skills.
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